This article discusses the immediate problems faced by Pakistan in the establishment of an independent nation. It also evaluates how far Pakistan was successful in overcoming these initial problems
How successful Pakistan was in overcoming the problems
Division of financial assets
Division of Military Assets
When Pakistan came into being, its military was under-resourced. India did not provide Pakistan’s share of military equipment as per the agreement. There was a total of 16 ordnance factories were in India. None of these ordnance factories were given to Pakistan. Consequently, Pakistan had no factories capable of making military goods.
Any equipment supplied to Pakistan by India, not in proper condition, it was rather obsolete, worn, and of no use. Moreover, whatever military supplies reached Pakistan did not reach in time.
|Administrative Problem: A new government had to be formed. New capital had to be decided. Records were left in India. There was a lack of offices to start bureaucratic and public services. The offices lacked stationery.|
Canal Water Dispute: India blocked water to Pakistan from Ferozpur where canal headworks located. India claimed that as the headworks were in its country it had complete rights to do what it wanted with the water.
But, the economy of Pakistan depended upon this water.
|The problem of national language: East Pakistanis started to protest against Urdu being declared as National Language. They demanded that Bengali should be declared National Language because it was the language spoken by the majority of people in Pakistan.||Quaid-e-Azam visited East Pakistan and toured different places. He addressed public gatherings and asked people to beware of the anti-Pakistan elements who wanted to weaken Pakistan in the name of the language. With this visit of Quaid-e-Azam, the language issue disappeared. It resurfaced after the death of Quaid – e- Azam. However, it was addressed when Bengali was declared the national language along with Urdu in the 1956 constitution.|
|Princely states (Hyderabad, Junagarh, Kashmir): As per the Indian Independence Act 1947 the princely states have the right to either join India or Pakistan or remain independent. The princely states of Hyderabad and Junagarh had acceded to Pakistan but the Indian Army forcibly occupied these states. Moreover, India occupied the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir on 27 October 1947. 85% of the population in Kashmir was Muslim and they did not want to join India.||The Pakistan government protested to the United Nations Organization about the illegal occupation of Hyderabad Deccan and Junagarh but the matter remains unresolved.|
In the case of Kashmir Pakistan also entered to support freedom fighters and War between Pakistan and India broke out in Kashmir. On the intervention of the United Nations cease-fire was brought about between Pakistan and India. The issue is still not resolved despite many wars and war-like situations always existing between both of the states.