EducationInternational RelationsPakistan Studies

Issues and Strengths of Pakistan’s relationship with India

This article discusses the strengths and issues in Pakistan-India relations. 

Brief Introduction

India and Pakistan emerged as two independent states in 1947 as a result of the Partition of the Indian Subcontinent. With partition, the British rule in India came to an end. However, their departure in haste left behind serious issues that exist between the two states to date. 

Since day one, both states have failed to find a common ground for cooperation. Instead of mutual understanding, respect, and trust their relations have been characterized by wars and consistent hostilities. 

A properly managed transfer of power after resolving the potential issues would reduce future hostilities.  The redressal of issues related to states would reduce years-long animosity and hostility between Pakistan and India.

Strengths of Pakistan-India Relations

As mentioned in the above lines relations between India and Pakistan always have been tense and unfriendly. Therefore, it can be said that there is no such considerable strength in the relationship of Pakistan with India.

Issues in Pakistan-India Relations

A. Kashmir issue

 Kashmir issue is a bone of contention between both countries. India claims Kashmir as its integral part whereas Pakistan considers Kashmir its jugular reign. Pakistan supports the right of self-determination of Kashmiris which India considers interference in its internal affairs. Three wars have been fought and several conflicts have taken place in the last 70 years between both states.

India claims the whole of Jammu and Kashmir including Pakistan-controlled Gilgit-Baltistan and Azad Jammu and Kashmir it is an integral part. It has been making designs to attack and take control of these strategically important parts of the former state of states by force.

B. Water dispute

According to the Indus Basin Treaty 1959, Pakistan has exclusive rights on the water of western rivers of River Indus, Jhelum, and Chenab. Pakistan argues that India is violating the Treaty by constructing dams on the river Chenab in the name of electricity generation. Pakistan has challenged India’s attempt to construct dams on these rivers which would give India the capacity to interfere with the flow of river waters to Pakistan.  India refutes the allegations of Pakistan terming the construction of dams for power generation as exactly in line with the treaty. The issue has been referred to World Bank but it is still in limbo.

C. Sarcreek Border issue

Both countries have yet not been able to define their border in the Arabia sea at Sir creek between Sindh province of Pakistan and Gujrat state.  There have been rounds of talks between the two states, without a breakthrough. Pakistan has also proposed that the two sides should seek international arbitration, which India has refused. According to India, Thirty party intervention comes under violation of the Simla Agreement 1972 which asks for both states to resolve issues bilaterally.

D. China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC)

India opposes the China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) as it sees expanding the economic influence of China as a threat to its hegemonic designs in the region. India claims that  CPEC passes through Gilgit-Baltistan which is part of the former state of Jammu and Kashmir. According to India Gilgit-Baltistan is its integral part and Pakistan has illegally occupied the region.

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