Factors that Influence the Climate of Pakistan

This post discusses the important factors which influence the climate of Pakistan and shape what it is.   


The climate of Pakistan varies from one place to another. There are four main types of climate in the country i.e. highland climate, low land climate, arid climate, and coastal climate. There are a number of factors i.e. precipitation, Monsoon winds, western depressions, conventional currents, relief rainfall, tropical cyclones, that influence and shape the climate of Pakistan. 

The following is an explanation of each of the factors that influence the climate of Pakistan:

1. Precipitation

Precipitation refers to the falling down of water particles on the surface of the earth in form of rainfall, snowfall, sleet, and hail. Rainfall is the most common example of the process of precipitation. Different regions experience rainfall at different times due to different reasons as part of their climate.

Balochistan experiences some rainfall in winters because of western depressions. Major parts of the Indus plain and coastal areas also receive rainfall in July and August mainly because of summer monsoon winds.

As far as relief rainfall is concerned, it falls more in high altitude areas than low altitude areas. Consequently, the relief rainfall decreases as we move from north to south due to changes in the height of mountains.  Rainfall impacts the temperature and is itself an important factor in shaping the climate of any area within Pakistan.

2. Monsoon winds

Monsoon winds are another factors that influence the climate of Pakistan. There are two types of Monsoon winds, Summer Monsoons, and Winter Monsoons. Summer Monsoon winds blow from east to westward from April to October. They cause rainfall during the month of July and August in Coastal areas and the Indus plain.

Winter Monsoons blow from north to south which is dry and cold. These winds make the temperature fall causing cool days and shivering nights in Indus plain and coastal areas.

3. Western Depressions

Western Depressions refer to the cyclones that originate in the Mediterranean sea. Winds created by these cyclones move towards Iran and Afghanistan with huge moister in them. They enter the northern part of Pakistan, strike with northern and north-western mountains and move towards Balochistan. During their travel through many parts such as Peshawar Pakhtunkhwa and Southwestern Parts of Balochistan and cause rainfall in there from December to March.

4. Convectional currents

The term refers to the phenomenon of rising of air with high moisture due to too much heat in summer, followed by condensation of water vapors in the atmosphere causing rainfall and thunderstorms. During these strong winds are created that blow with high speed taking dusk particles with them.

Convectional currents cause rainfall and thunderstorms along with strong storms in the summer in the northern and north-western areas of the country.

Rawalpindi, Peshawar, and another place in the northwest of Pakistan receive some rainfall in early summer because of convectional currents.

5. Relief rainfall

Relief rainfall takes place during summer in mountainous areas as it is related to altitude. This rainfall occurs in mountains where the moisture-filled air is chilled. The low temperature at height causes condensation and precipitation.

6. Tropical cyclones

Tropical cyclones are another source of rainfall (precipitation) in coastal areas. These cyclones originate in the Arabian Sea after a period of 3-5 years. The winds created in these cyclones seldom reach the coast. When they move towards the land they can cause storms and rainfall causing damage to standing crops, homes, roads, and other infrastructure.

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