EducationPakistan Studies

The Concept of Good Governance

Factors measuring good governance

In this article the concept of governance and it aspects will be defined and unpacked. Factors defined by United Nations to measure good governance are also discussed for a deeper comprehension of the concept.

The concept “Good governance”

Governance refers to the way or the manner in which a government governs or administers a state. Governance can be good or bad.

Good governance

  1. It refers to administration of a country in a manner which results in a system based on justice, peace, equity and protection of fundamental human rights.
  2. When we say administration, it means utilization of human, natural and financial resources of country. When resources are utilized, with an approach to ensure the well being and prosperity of citizens, it’s called good governance.

Bad governance

Bad governance is characterized by corruption, inequality, insecurity, injustice, discrimination and violation of fundamental human rights and civil liberties.

Factors defining Good governance

According to the United Nations, Good Governance is measured by the eight factors:


Efficiency refers to effective utilization of available resources to fulfill the needs of the people. Sustainable use of resources is an import component of effective and efficiency in which resources are used not only to fulfill present needs of people but they are also saved for future generations.


A state is considered to be responsive when it reaches out to its citizens to help them in time of need within an acceptable and appropriate time span. For example, the response of the government should be prompt and quick to help out people in any human and natural disasters etc.


Participation is another factor of good governance which means people belonging to different cultures, communities, regions etc. have equal access to decision making and running the affairs of the state without any discrimination.

Consensus building

A state may consists of more than one cultural group, nationality, community etc. To cater needs and expectations of citizens in a diverse society, it is important to make decisions on which all agree and feel comfortable.

Inclusion and equity

This means people belonging to different cultures, communities, regions etc. are included in government system and they are empowered as same and equal citizens of the state to play their part in the development of their communities and society at large.

Rule of law

Rule of law means supremacy of the law will be maintained at all cost. It means a free judicial and legal system which safeguards civil liberties and fundamental rights of its citizens. This suggests that no one is above law and anyone who attempts to violate law or put it at abeyance will be punished without any regard to his/her power position etc.  


Accountability means that institutions (both government and private sector agencies) and the government itself are answerable to people and one another through a robust accountability mechanism.


This means that people of the state have the access to information about government decisions and the manner in which the decisions are made. The government is bound to make things public through popular media for general information.

Noor Akber

I am a social activist and educationist. I write on politics, culture, education and economy.

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