The prophet Muhammad (PBUH) delivered his last sermon on the 12th of the last Islamic month of Zulhaj at the place of Arafat in Macca. In his last sermon, the prophet (PBUH) spoke about the rights and obligations of people prescribed by Islam. By all means, the sermon can be considered as the first and the most comprehensive charter of human rights in history.
The provision of fundamental rights is central to the concept of good governance. In this article, I am highlighting the rights and duties enshrined in the last sermon of Muhammad (PBUH).
What are the Rights and Duties in light of the last sermon of the prophet Muhammad (PBUH)?
Rights of man in light of the sermon
1.Right to life, security, and self-dignity.
2. Right to own property and its security.
3. Right to reclaim trust by the owner from the trustee.
4. Right to personal freedom and use of one’s earning.
5. Right to safety from inequity.
6. Right to equal treatment under the law.
7. Right to practice religion freely and maintain religious institutions.
8. Rights of husband and wife.
9. Rights of women to the best-treatment.
10. Freedom from discrimination.
11. Freedom from the acquisition of property by force
12. Right to access to information.
13. Right to hearing in the courts and by the government.
14. Freedom from being subjected to non-personal criminal responsibility
15. Right to inheritance for both male and female children.
16. Safeguard against the mistreatment of prisoners.
Duties of man in light of the sermon
1. Dedication, commitment, and obedience towards the what Almighty wishes.
2. Duty to refrain from acts of usury.
3. Duty to refrain from un-Islamic legal, political and economic practices.
4. The obligation to observing the Islamic calendar.
5. Duty to observe Islamic rites as demonstrated and enunciated in the Holy book.
6. The obligation to commit oneself to the preservation of Islamic brotherhood.
7. duty to restrain from causing injury and damage to others’ lives and property.
8. Duty to implement Islamic teachings in personal and collective lives.
9. Duty to promote and practically implement Islamic laws.